What are the contributions made by Jainism?
- Jainism made the first serious attempt to mitigate the evils of the Vama order and the ritualistic Vedic religion.
- The early Jainas discarded Sanskrit language mainly patronized by the Brahmanas.
- They adopted Prakrit language of the common people to preach their doctrines. Their religious literature was written in Ardhamagadhi, and the texts were finally compiled in the sixth century. A.D. in Gujarat at a place called Valabhi, a great centre of education. The adoption of Prakrit by the Jainas helped the growth of this language and its literature.
- Many regional languages developed out of Prakrit languages, particularly Shauraseni, out of which grew the Marathi language.
- The Jainas composed the earliest important works in Apabhramsha and prepared its first grammar.
The Jaina literature contains epics, Puranas, novels and drama. A large portion of the Jaina writing is still in the form of manuscripts, which have not been published and which are found in the Jaina shrines of Gujarat and Rajasthan. In early medieval times the Jainas also made good use of Sanskrit and wrote many texts in it Last but not the least they contributed to the growth of Kannada, in which they wrote extensively.
- Initially, like the Buddhists, the Jainas were not image worshiper’s. Later they began to worship Mahavira and also the twenty-three tirthankaras. Beautiful and sometimes massive images in stone were sculpted for this purpose, especially in Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
- Jaina art in ancient times is not as rich as Buddhist art, but Jainism contributed substantially to art and architecture in medieval times.
- All our judgments are necessarily relative, conditional and eliminated. SYAT or relatively speaking or viewed from a particular view point which is necessarily related to other view point must precede all our judgments.
Absolute affirmation and absolute negation both are wrong.
- All judgments are conditional Saptabhanginaya means dialectic of the sevens steps or the theory of seven field judgement
1) First council was held at Palaliputra by Sthulabahu compiled the 12 angas.
2) Second council was held at Valabhi in the 5th century A. D. under the leadership of Devaradsni Kshamasramana and 12 Angus and 12 Upangas was finally compiled here.